African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research A Publication of St. Paul’s University Copyright: St. Paul’s University Journal All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Editor-in-Chief. en-US African Multidisciplinary Journal of Research 2518-2986 Comparing the level of working collaboration in treatment between in person and e-counseling among selected therapists during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Nairobi County, Kenya <p><em>In the counseling process, the move to technological space has created a different meaning to the interaction in the counseling process, which is felt but not fully realized. The person-to-person interaction is regarded as beneficial not only to the authentic counseling relationship but also to various dynamics such as assessment, interviewing, building rapport and physical observation which are key to information gathering on the client’s story and the treatment process.&nbsp; This study sought to compare the level of working collaboration in treatment between in person and e-counseling among Selected Therapists during the Covid 19 Pandemic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Respondents were therapists in Nairobi County. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sample. The target population was 324 counselors who have their offices within the Nairobi County. A sample of 100 therapist who practiced both in-person and e-counseling during Covid participated in the study. The study adopted a comparative qualitative design, data was collected using a questionnaire. This study used fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis software for calculations and presentation of solutions (FSQCA) and the results were presented using frequency tables, bar graphs, and percentages. The findings of the study indicated that majority of the respondents 68% felt that distance and physical contact were essential in building a counseling relationship in both e-counseling and physical counseling. The study recommended that there is need for both client and therapist to consider a blended approach when forming a working relationship in both face to face and e-counseling for better counseling experience. Further, the study recommended that the therapist should be empowered to provide a feedback form to the clients to assist in the evaluation of their experiences in the collaborative relationship in both e-counseling and in person to increase sufficiency in building a better relationship.</em></p> T. Mueni Vundi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 1 18 Deontological versus Teleological Views of Deception in Medical Research <p><em>The need for valid research remains urgent and a priority for all authentic studies. One of the research procedures (allowed in special circumstances) is the deception of research participants for some reasons in order to use them in the study. Questions emerge on whether deceiving participants is acceptable, and how deception actually compromises the respect for persons. Arguments for or against deception in research usually anchor on either deontological or teleological reasons. This however creates tension. This study has suggested determination on whether deception in research is right or wrong, based on how those studies balance concern for science versus research participants’ welfare. The most authentic study, as proposed in this paper, is a research approach which only accepts to use deception in research, when both the concern for science and concern for participants remains simultaneously high; and not deception at the expense of the research participants.</em></p> Lagat D. Kipkemboi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 19 38 Homosexuality and Spirituality: A digital age missiological dilemma for the Anglican Church in Uganda <p><em>Homosexuality, </em><em>an erotic sexual attraction to same sex individuals, has been in existence since ancient days and the lifestyle grows every year that unfolds. Legislations to reverse homosexuality are documented in sacred and political books of history. The underlying forces behind homosexuality are speculative. Voices are calling on political and religious leaders to give space to consenting homosexual adults. European and some Asian countries have scrapped punitive laws but in the Arab world and majority of African countries, punitive legislations are in force to protect the sanctity of traditional families. To the opposing voices, homosexuality is an abomination, unnatural, and human beings associated with such should be caged out of society. &nbsp;</em><em>Is spirituality and homosexuality a digital missiological dilemma of the Anglican Church in Uganda? To examine the question, three methods – allegorical, literary, and historical approaches were relied on. Results show that homosexuality is a social construct that is installed in the software system of human beings. Ingrained systems can be uninstalled through spiritual deliverance and psychotherapeutic interventions, however, to the homosexually oriented people, the sexual lifestyle is an innate biological drive, and for that reason, consenting adults should be accorded freedom to express their sexuality publicly. The dilemma facing the missiological mandate of the Anglican Church in Uganda towards homosexual people is that scientists have failed to prove that same-sex attraction erotic drives are inborn. &nbsp;If such a proof was in existence, then sacred scriptures recorded on the pages of the Bible would have been realigned and contextualized to speak to the Ugandan Anglican church vis-à-vis African social traditions. This article displays the causes of homosexuality, biblical worldview of homosexuality, effects of homosexuality practices, current debates on homosexuality, and a call for Uganda Anglican religious leaders to design missiological programmes that if well implemented, would provide peaceful abode for the LGBTIQA+ community.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Samson I. Musana Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 39 65 Jesus’ teaching on the poor widow in Mark 12:41-44: Towards a contextual reading of the text in relation to the church’s teaching on giving <p><em>The poor widow in Mark 12:41-44 is praised for her generosity shown in contributing what she had to the Temple treasury. Because she contributes “out of her poverty”, she is actually more generous than all the rich people who contribute large sums out of their surplus. This seems to hold up the widow as an example of the true piety and generosity that exist among God’s people. However, the context of Mark 12:41- 44 raises the question whether the generosity of the poor widow should be taken as an occasion for praise as it has been traditionally held or for lament, as some scholars have suggested. When interpreted as cause for lament, the widow’s action would illustrate the perils of institutional religion whereby the Temple establishment manipulated this generous woman into parting with what little she possessed. This research has discussed the meaning of the poor widow’s story, by means of an exegetical analysis of the pericope and, subsequently, by the contextual reading of this pericope within its immediate narrative context, as well as in the broader context of the whole Markan narrative. The research has followed the steps of exegeting a biblical text such as historical approach, literary approach, text and translation, biblical and theological approach as well as application among others. The research has proposed a theological concept, “A concern for God’s Law on widows.” The argument has been that the poor widow should not be thought of as the exemplary giver.&nbsp; Rather, she is more properly to be understood as the exemplary victim of a corrupt religious establishment. This research has established that Jesus’ words concerning the widow and her offering, is not a commendation, but is the crowning condemnation of the temple establishment.&nbsp; Further, it has established the single sin of the scribes for which Jesus condemns them (Mark 12:40) and which is aggravated by their office as the official teachers of Israel’s religion. Their sin had a direct impact on the economic welfare of the widow in particular and the entire people in general. They compounded their sin of hypocrisy by actually overturning the Law of Moses, thus robbing those in society who were the most needy and vulnerable. On this understanding the research has shown that, the widow’s impoverished condition alone is a scandal in Israel in the light of Torah. But the circumstances of her poverty make the scandal far more grievous, for it has come at the hands of those who are teachers in Israel: the guardians of Torah and the true religion of Yahweh.</em></p> Okeno P. Akoth Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 66 87 Local variables describing poverty and wellbeing among residents of Kibra slum; Nairobi, Kenya <p><em>The purpose of this article is to present a contextual definition of poverty derived from research conducted in 2022 by the author among the residents of Kibra slum in Nairobi Kenya also known as Kibera.&nbsp; To aid in the formulation of a contextual definition, local variables describing poverty and wellbeing from the experiences of the residents are presented and discussed.&nbsp; Contextual definitions of poverty are geared towards resolving the accelerating growth of poverty especially in slum communities within Sub-Saharan Africa.&nbsp; As the rest of the world experiences a decrease in poverty, the poverty rate within the region is almost at a fifty percent.&nbsp; The effects of poverty are felt and experienced within the growing cities of this regions and more especially in slum communities.&nbsp; A set of sixteen poverty indicators were identified and mixed methods research used to collect data among the residents.&nbsp; The data is presented through descriptive statistics and thematic descriptions of poverty as narrated by residents.&nbsp; Additionally, a multidimensional poverty index of respondents was computed from data generated from the poverty indicators to give each respondent an individualized score.&nbsp; The study revealed that 68% of the respondents were deprived.&nbsp; They experienced </em><em>deprivation in access to NHIF, with 65.8% lacking active registration to this health scheme, access to toilet facilities where all the respondents share toilets with several other households with no organized sewerage systems, monthly income with 87% of the respondents earning below the monthly minimum wage, ability to pay monthly rent with 80.9% of the respondents having rent arrears, nature of work with 87.5% not having a regular source of income, and cooking fuel with 70.2% of respondents cooking with paraffin, charcoal, or firewood. Targeting the poorest of the poor within Kibra slum remains a challenge for development practitioners.&nbsp; In consultation with the residents, efforts towards responding to the above-mentioned deprivations including enhancing the quality of education and unemployment among the children and the youth of the slum are of great concern.&nbsp; </em></p> Wanjiku N. Njagi Charity I. Irungu Peter Koome Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 88 116 Modernism and Covid-19 Pandemic: A comparative reading of pathology in Corona Virus Disease-19 pandemic and contemporary African prose <p><em>This study interrogates the pathological consequences of modernism with regards to the Covid-19 pandemic and selected works of prose fiction. It cross-examines the impact of modernism and its role in the genesis, transmission and accentuation of mental illness through the modern state and mechanization of humanity in the Covid-19 pandemic, Farah’s Close Sesame (1983) and Chikwava’s Harare North (2009). Using Ato Quason’s calibrations, the study adopts a combination of theories from the social, political, psychological and cultural domains to scrutinize the assumption that art is either a mere expression of the unconscious or the artist’s fantasies that seldom address the realities that affect the modern society. The eighteenth century saw the birth of a different perspective that was hailed as a genesis of sanity and social progress in Europe and the world at large. It was a modern era, a conversation that crowned rationality, and a break from tradition as pathways to civilization. Religion and insistence on traditional ways of thinking were confined to the private space given their emphasis on “irrationality” akin to insanity. Communal lifestyles and mass cultures were construed as “primitive” while universalization and globalization were upheld. Traditional forms of government were replaced by the modern state as a solution to problems faced by citizens. Similarly, the novel replaced traditional forms of literature such as poetry and drama; in spite of the new genre, modernist theories dismissed art as sheer fantasy, and worse, a self-defense mechanism exhibited by the sick artist, and may not be relied on to represent realities in the modern world. This is an analytical study that proceeds by a close textual reading of the primary and secondary texts to effect the comparison.</em></p> Andrew Nyongesa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 117 137 Covid-19 Pandemic and the Church in Kenya in the Context of Modern Information Communication Technology <p><em>Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic has had devastating effects as well as positive lessons: socially, economically, and spiritually on the church, going forward. Social media or modern technology came in handy to enable the church activities go on during lockdown. This study was premised on the following objectives: to discuss the negative effects of Covid-19 on the church, socially, economically, and spiritually, to examine positive effects of Covid-19 on the church, socially, economically, and spiritually, and to explore solutions of Covid-19 and other pandemics on the church in the era of ICT. Hypothetically, the church has what it takes to provide solutions to pandemics because God has the will power to save his people. This notwithstanding, the problematic question was to find out how ICT was used as an enabler during the pandemic and why a loving God allows calamities to befall his people yet he can avert them. The research methodology was historical discourse analysis of library and archival data which was employed to describe, collect, collate, and to discuss data findings. Discourse analysis was also used to draw summaries, conclusions, and recommendations. The main findings and implications were that the pandemic led to believers’ faith relaxation, low church activities as they hoped in God’s salvific ability and yet questioned why he allowed these prolonged suffering on the church. Conclusively, God in His will power can rescue his people and as well allow them to experience calamities as part of the way of the cross. The lessons of pandemics positively prepare the church for its second advent among others.</em></p> Peter J. Bwire Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 138 153 Why Must a Woman Be Silent? A Liberative Reading of I Timothy 2:12 for Gender Equity in Church Leadership in Nigeria <p><em>Bible interpretation concerning Pauline letters has been used to exclude women from the leadership in the church such as I Timothy 2:12. Therefore, this paper employs a liberative interpretation of I Timothy 2:12 to address the exclusion of women from church leadership within mainline churches in Nigeria, where this paper is contextualized. In Nigeria, the Bible is being used to exclude women from church leadership due to the patriarchal interpretation of the Pauline text. Such interpretation and reading tend to silence the call of God on several women within the church and they are not allowed to serve with their gifts in leadership because of the exclusive reading and interpretation.&nbsp; </em><em>The liberative interpretation employed in this work addresses the marginalization, subordination, and exclusion of women who are also created in the image of God and can equally experience the call of God for their life into church leadership within the mainline churches in Nigeria. This can also serve as a hermeneutical key in interpreting Pauline gender passages using the same Pauline text to broaden the scope of the church's mode of interpreting the Bible as a whole. The interpretation aims to call the attention of the interpreters within Nigeria to balance their interpretation to be more inclusive rather than exclusive.</em></p> Moses I. Ogidis Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 154 171 Conspiracy Theories, Community Radio, and Uptake of COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors in Kenya. A Case of SIFA FM <p><em>The onset of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan China ushered in a new normal in the way the society handled its issues.&nbsp; However, measures were put to contain it.&nbsp;This pandemic unlike others was surrounded by lots of conspiracy theories regarding its origin, purpose, and measures put in place to contain it. The purpose of this study was to show how conspiracy theories and radio communication influenced the uptake of COVID-19 preventive measures in two SIFA FM station audiences, Voi and Marsabit. &nbsp;&nbsp;A sample of 200 participants filled out a survey with closed and open-ended questions in July to October 2021. The results showed that marital status and the location of the participant influenced the perception of susceptibility and uptake of COVID-19 preventive measures. The audience had great faith in the radio and listened to it often. Generally, there was a high perception of the intake of COVID-19 preventive measures, and low perception of participants’ susceptibility to the COVID-19 pandemic, and a moderate perception of conspiracy beliefs.&nbsp;Half of the participants were willing to take up vaccines but a good number were still doubtful of vaccines. &nbsp;&nbsp;Thus, the radio should tailor intervention messages based on the risk perception of different groups in its audience. &nbsp;In addition, different conspiracy theories circulated in different locations, and the two cultures had different perception levels of their risk to the pandemic</em></p> Gladys Muasya wanjugu Wachira Susan Mwangi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 8 II 172 196